by | Apr 19, 2024 | Disease And Condition | 0 comments

Achalasia is a rare disease of the muscle of the esophagus. Achalasia is a disorder of the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus), which affects the ability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach. This disease is also known as esophageal achalasia, Esophageal Aperistalsis, Cardiospasm and Achalasia Cardiae.

This disease refers to the inability of the Lower Esophagus Sphincter to relax and allow the food to the stomach. In many patients, the lower sphincter resting pressure is very high which an abnormal condition is. The muscles of esophagus do not contract normally due to this the saliva and food is not sent down in the stomach through esophagus. Sometimes the patients of the achalasia feel high-pressure in the lower esophagus while swallowing but these high-pressure waves are not effective in pushing the food in to the stomach


There are three primary characteristics of achalasia

  • Failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax during swallowing

  • Loss of the wave-like contractions of smooth muscles (called peristalsis) that forces food through the digestive tract

  • Lack of nervous stimulation to the esophagus

The main reason for achalasia is the failure of the sphincter muscle to properly relax where sphincter is a muscular ring that located at the junction of stomach and esophagus. This ring relaxes while swallowing and it allows the food and water to pass in to the stomach. It remains contracted otherwise, it prevents the digested food and stomach acids from flowing back into the esophagus.

Cancer of the esophagus or upper stomach and a parasite infection that causes chagas disease may have symptoms like those of achalasia. Different types of cancer, trauma to esophageal nerves and many other parasitic infections can cause achalasia. Sometimes achalasia is also caused due to the genetic reasons. Some genes in the human body increase the chances of this disease.

  • Vomiting

  • Regurgitation

  • Chest pain

  • Heartburn

  • Cough

  • Unintentional weight loss

  • Difficulty swallowing liquids and solids

  • Patients may feel heavy after eating something

  • The symptoms may lead to Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease


3. Surgery of achalasia: the achalasia surgery is also known as esophagomytomy or Heller’s Myotomy. It is considered to the permanent treatment of this disease. The purpose of this operation is to reduce the pressure in the lower sphincter muscles. A cut is made on the sphincter muscle that let it relax and makes the normal swallowing possible. The achalasia patients should be good in health because this operation puts a lot of stress on the patients so that patients have to be physically fit for the surgery